Dear Congressman Hansen: The Wasatch Front Regional Council has been working for the past several years with the Utah Department of Transportation and local governments in Davis, Weber, and Morgan Counties to develop plans for improving US-89 from Burke Lane in Farmington to Harrison Boulevard in Ogden. In August 1988, a consultant was hired to study the corridor and recommend needed improvements. The objective of this study was to provide for safe and efficient travel in the corridor through the year 2010. The recommendation of the study is to develop US-89 as a limited access expressway with interchanges. A copy of the Executive Summary describing the results of this study is enclosed. I hope you will find this report helpful. If you have any questions or need further information, please contact us. Sincerely, Wilbur R. Jefferies Executive Director
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY US 89 CORRIDOR STUDY DAVIS AND WEBER COUNTIES SUBMITTED TO: Wasatch Front Regional Council SUBMITTED BY: Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc. Midvale, Utah March 1989 BACKGROUND The US 89 Corridor Study was a comprehensive analysis of the existing and future travel demands along US 89. Its major purpose was to identify and evaluate options for short-, intermediate-, and long-term safety and operational improvements along the corridor. The study included an inventory of the existing conditions; identification and analysis of the operational deficiencies of the existing facility; the projection of future travel demand through the year 2010 based on population and land use forecasts; the development and analysis of alternative conceptual improvement plans; a recommended improvement plan and the implementation phasing of its elements; preliminary cost estimates; and possible funding and implementation options. The US 89 Corridor Study Final Report documents the entire study process and the detailed study findings. This Executive Summary provides a brief overview of the study and the recommendations. THE STUDY AREA The subject portion of US 89 is located in the north-central part of Utah and functions as a transportation link between Salt Lake City, Ogden, Hill Air Force Base (HAFB), and the surrounding communities. It serves local, commuter, and interstate traffic and is the designated route between Interstates 15 and 84.
The study area is shown in Figure 1. It is bounded on the north by 4800 South Street in Ogden, on the south by 925 South Street in Farmington, on the east by the Morgan County line, and on the west by Interstate 15. THE STUDY PROCESS The study was administered by the Wasatch Front Regional Council (WFRC) as part of its transportation planning process. A Technical Steering Committee was established to provide input and guidance for the study. The committee included [map page] representatives from the cities of Farmington, Fruit Heights, Kaysville, Layton, South Weber, and Clearfield; Davis, Weber, and Morgan Counties; and the Utah Department of Transportation: The Utah Transit Authority and the Wasatch Front Regional Council also participated in meetings of the Steering Committee: One of the principal elements of this study was a thorough public involvement process which included the following major components: 1. Regular meetings with the Technical Steering Committee. 2. Interviews with elected officials from all involved jurisdictions. 3. Presentations throughout the study process to elected officials of each of the cities within the study area. 4. The formation of two citizen planning committees which met monthly to review and comment on the development of the alternatives and the refinement of the recommended improvements. 5. Public meetings in September 1988 (Kaysville and South Weber) and in January 1989 (Layton): EXISTING CONDITIONS US 89 serves communities in North Davis County and the southeast quadrant of Weber County. According to the 1986 population and land use data provided by the
Wasatch Front Regional Council (WFRC) the population of the study area was 85,539 people. The existing land use and zoning in the corridor is a combination of residential, agricultural, and limited commercial. In addition, some industrial land exists in the vicinity of the Weber River. Hill Air Force Base, which contributes 55 percent of the total employment in the area, is located immediately west of the corridor. The segment of US 89 between Burke Lane and Harrison Boulevard is 12-62 miles in length. It has four lanes, two in each direction, shoulders which are typically wide and a median of varying width and treatment. The roadway is functionally classified as a principal arterial. Currently, 125 streets and private drives open onto US 89. No pedestrian provisions exist for crossing US 89 except at Harrison Boulevard. The average daily traffic (ADT) volume on US 89 in 1988 was approximtely 23,000 vehicles per day. Approximately 93 percent of these vehicles are passenger cars, vans, or pick-up trucks. Less than five percent of the total vehicles are heavy trucks. Accident data for 1984 through 1987 were provided by UDOT. The total average accident rate for this period was 2.27 accidents per million vehicle miles of travel, which was less than the expected rate of 2.93. The fatal accident rate is 0.03, however, This is four times greater than the expected 0.0075 fatal accidents per million vehicle miles. Thirty-five percent of all accidents occurred at intersections. Poor light conditions were a factor in 33 percent of all accidents. Excessive speed by one or more vehicles contributed to 22 percent of the accidents. Trucks were involved in four percent of all accidents, wild and domestic animals factored in 16 percent of the accidents. The existing operational characteristics of the roadway were evaluated to identify those intersections where improvements are necessary. The results of this analysis show that the "thru" lanes of traffic on US 89 operate at a good level of service with little to no conflict. However, traffic entering the mainline from the cross streets typically experiences excessive delays, especially during the peak hour. Left turns from the mainline onto the cross streets also experience significant delay. These intersections were also evaluated to determine if further analysis for traffic signals or interchanges was warranted. Shepard Lane, Farmington Junction at Cherry Hill, 200 North Street, Oakhills Drive, Cherry Lane, Sunset Drive, Hill Field Road (SR 193), and South Weber Drive all warrant additional study at this time. FUTURE CONDITIONS Future population, land use, and traffic volumes will dictate the type of improvements needed in the future~ The master plans for the cities along the corridor indicate that the study area will continue to be primarily residential, with limited commercial development occurring to serve the growing population. Figure 2 shows the growth projected for the study area population and the US 89 traffic volumes between 1988 and 2010. Traffic forecasts for the study area were developed by WFRC in conjunction with the Transportation Planning Division of UDOT. UDOT and WFRC developed projections for the years 1995- 2000, and 2010. Projections of daily and peak hour turning movements were made for 13 major intersections along US 89 and at the I-84/US 89 interchange. An analysis of the 1995, 2000, and 2010 traffic on the existing roadway system showed that the operational performance, which is already below the acceptable level, cannot be significantly improved throughout the design period with additional turning lanes or other changes constructed at the intersections. These intersections were also evaluated to determine when and if further study for traffic signal control or an interchange should be conducted by UDOT. (The choice of a signal over an interchange is related to the preferred quality of service and the functional design of the roadway.) Of the 14 locations evaluated, it was estimated that all but one would require additional analysis within the design period. The analysis of the existing roadway showed that improvements for safety and traffic management are needed for the entire length of the US 89 corridor: The results of the analysis and the traffic projections were used to develop and analyze improvement alternatives. ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS Three alternative designs plus a "No Action" alternative and a Transportation System Management (TSM) Alternative were developed for the corridor. The designs were chosen to best represent possible approaches for improving safety while
maintaining an appropriate operational performance throughout the 20-year study period. The transportation system designs considered are described below: 1. A "No Action" Altemative for which neither operational nor safety improvements are considered for implementation.
2. A Transportation System Management (TSM) Altemative which would attempt to address the transportation problems without major financial investment. 3. A Full Freeway Design Alternative with access to US 89 only at interchanges located no closer than one mile. Grade-separated crossings were assumed at major east/west collectors. 4. A Limited Access Expressway Design Alternative with Interchanges
located no closer than one mile. Grade-separated crossings were assumed at east/west collectors. Right-in/right-out access to US 89 was
permitted at selected locations. No left turns or cross movements were permitted at any location. 5. A Limited Access Expressway Design Alternative with Signalized Intersections at locations meeting signal warrants. Right-in/right-out access to US 89 was also permitted at selected locations. No left turns or cross movements were permitted except at the signalized in tersections. Both the "No Action" and the TSM Alternatives would be unable to provide an adequate level of service on US 89 in the future. Therefore, these were eliminated from further evaluation. A traffic analysis was performed to determine the expected level of service (LOS) at the major intersections and along the arterial itself. The methodology of the Transportation Research Board, 1985 Highway Capacity Manual, Special Report 209, was used for this analysis. The minimum LOS for the analysis was "D", Existing and projected 1995, 2000, an 2010 traffic volumes were considered and analyzed. The
results of the analysis are summarized in Table 1. The analysis of the freeway design was performed for existing traffic volumes and
for projected 1995, 2000, and 2010 volumes. The results show that the expected average level of service on US 89 would be "C" in 2010. To provide this level of service three to four freeway lanes in each direction would be necessary, and the majority of ramps would require two lanes. In addition, three to four lanes in each direction would be necessary for the access streeet. The limited access expressway design varies from the freeway design by permitting right-in/right-out access to US 89 at selected cross streets. The effect of this is to reduce the total traffic volumes at the interchanges and on the arterial and collector streets accessing the interchanges. The expected level of service for this
design would be "A" through the year 2010. To accommodate the traffic volumes three "thru" lanes in each direction on US 89 and two to three lanes on the cross streets will be necessary. Standard acceleration/deceleration lanes were assumed at the right-in/right-out locations. The signalized corridor alternative was analyzed to determine both the expected level of service and average speed on US 89. This analysis shows that for the 2010 projected volumes the average LOS at the signalized intersections of the corridor will be "E", and the average speed on US 89 in 2010 will be 32 miles per hour. To maintain this LOS and speed it would be necessary to provide a minimum of three through lanes in each direction of US 89, plus two left turn lanes, and one right turn lane at each intersection. On the cross streets one to two through lanes in each direction, plus one left turn lane, and one right turn lane or shared right/through lane would be necessary at each intersection. The optimum design for the year 2010 is the limited access expressway with interchanges and grade-separated crossings. This design has less impact on the adjacent street network than does the freeway design. This design provides a higher level of service and safety while permitting a higher speed than does the signalized arterial alternative. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED ACTION The proposed US 89 corridor improvements were developed to improve safety and to maintain a level of service appropriate for a principal arterial. The elements of this
design include interchanges; grade-separated crossings; controlled access points with adequate acceleration/deceleration lanes; construction of an additional travel lane in each direction; separation of the north and south travel lanes; standardization of the median treatment along the entire length of the roadway; construction of truck climbing lanes; development of a two-way frontage road system on both sides of US 89; improvements to the roadway lighting and signing; and amenities for pedestrians, bicyclists, and buses. Construction of these improvements will require several years to complete. Interim mitigation may be used to forestall the construction of the improvements; however, the need for certain elements is imminent and will be necessary with or without the use of interim mitigation. Figure 3 shows the conceptual design of the improvements recommended for the US 89 corridor. Currently, the large number of access points on US 89 is not only hazardous, but also
reduces, significantly, the quality of service on US 89 and its intersections: Implementation of a limited access expressway design would necessitate closure of all access to US 89 except at 12 designated points. At these locations traffic control measures would serve to ensure safety and an appropriate level of service. The interchanges and right-in/right-out locations would be the only access points to US 89. All other streets and driveways would be closed with access to those properties provided from the frontage road system. The level of use and
compatibility with the existing and planned street network was used to determine which access points would be closed and which would be improved for increased use. No commercial access to US 89 would be permitted. The improvement elements were prioritized into short-, intermediate-, and longterm construction phases as shown in Table 2. These phases reflect the need for the improvement as determined by the analysis of traffic and accident data. Existing and proposed land use was also considered in developing the plan. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT An environmental assessment of the study corridor was performed to determine what, if any, environmental consequences would result from the proposed improvements. On the basis of this, initial assessment, it was determined that the appropriate environmental document for the proposed project is an Environmental Impact Statement. The major environmental factors requiring further analysis include wildlife, wetlands, fault hazards, slope stability, soils, prime agricultural lands, right-of-way acquisition/displacement, hydrology/floodplain, noise, air quality, and archaeological/historical resources. Any of the analyzed improvement alternatives would require this level of additional study. COST Preliminary construction costs were developed for the recommended conceptual design. The costs were developed to show only an order of magnitude for the improvement costs. These costs are summarized for each of the construction phases in Table 3. The preliminary cost estimates for the recommended improvements were also developed for segments of the mainline roadway and the frontage road proposed within the corridor. These costs are summarized by segment in Table 4. All costs are presented in 1989 dollar values. Land acquisition costs were not included in these estimates. However, minimal land acquisition will be required for US 89 mainline improvements. Real estate values fluctuate widely throughout the corridor and will change with any future development. These values will impact the cost of land acquisition for the recommended frontage roads. POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS In order to implement an expressway type design for US 89, certain policy issues need to be implemented uniformly throughout all political jurisdictions along the corridor. While UDOT has final control over the location and installation of access points, each county and city should have a uniform policy to deal with future development. This will allow equal treatment of developers throughout the corridor. As development occurs along the corridor, additional areas will require access to the highway. The frontage road system can control this need for additional access. It is recom mended that developers be required to design their development plans to include both frontage roads and their access onto them. The elimination of access points is necessary for the improvement of safety along the corridor. New access points directly onto US 89 should be discouraged. Future requests for access onto US 89 should be subject to specific guidelines prior to approval. Any new access point should be considered temporary and subject to closure at such time as deemed necessary by UDOT. Each public agency along the corridor has in place ordinances covering new development. A legal review of those ordinances by each agency is recommended to determine if modifications are necessary prior to the incorporation of guidelines for frontage roads and access points into those ordinances. FUNDING Several funding sources would be available to fund the improvements recommended for the US 89 Corridor. Projects on US 89 would be eligible to receive Federal Aid Primary or state construction funds. UDOT and the State Transportation Commission are responsible for programming these funds. One approach for funding the project would be to implement the improvements in the three construction phases. A bond of $20-25 million could then be issued for construction of the short term projects. Since each phase of the study is generally a stand-alone phase, this process could then be repeated for subsequent phases. Under this methodology, funds for construction of the project would not be sought until needed. The construction of the proposed frontage roads will need to be a joint effort between UDOT and the local jurisdictions. Developers should be required to build the frontage roads where possible.
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